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Cite right - concerning academic integrity

A self-study guide from the University Library


Citing means that you state the source from which arguments and quotations are taken, either in running text or in a footnote. A citation also means that you write with your own words and at the same time refer to others in your text so that the text flows smoothly. The complete reference is placed in a list so that it is clear where you have taken the information from. Below are two examples of how you go about citing.

Film link:



Example of how you go about citing with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.


Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4), 245-259.

Thomas, H. K. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.

Example from Penn State University libraries:

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Resources for writing references